1．Current status of continuous galvanizing in the world
Dr. Frank Goodwin ，IZA（国际锌协会技术市场部总监）
Dr. Frank Goodwin，is the Executive Director of International Lead and Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO), Director of Technology and Market Development of International Zinc Association. He has been responsible for research and development activities since joined ILZRO in 1982. With profound knowledge and extensive experiences, he is widely recognized in the industry as an authority in galvanizing science, technology and application. Dr. Goodwin holds a Ph.D. from MIT and authored numerous technical publications. He has been a member of organizing committee for the international continuous galvanizing conference, Galvatech, and the plenary speaker in several conferences. He was responsible for and oversaw the development Galfan coating.
2．Development of Hot-Dip Galvanized Advanced High Strength Steels
Dr. Jong-Sang Kim, POSCO Technical Research Laboratories （韩国浦项技术研究试验室）
The body design with light weight and enhanced safety is a key issue in the car industry. Corresponding to this trend, POSCO is developing various automotive steel products with advanced performance. Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) such as DP and TRIP steels are now expanding their application since the steels exhibit higher strength and ductility than those of conventional solution and precipitation strengthened high strength steels. Efforts have been made to enhance the mechanical performance of these steels such as ductility, hole expansion ratio, deep drawability, etc. However, excess addition of alloying elements such as Mn and Si, those are necessary for demanded properties, accelerates the oxide formation on the steel surface during annealing. As a result, the wettability of steel sheets with the molten zinc deteriorates and this leads to the coating defect such as bare-spot defect of coating. Current research is focused on improvement of wettability and mechanical properties of hot-dip galvanized AHSS.
Dr. Kim graduated from Hanyang University in 1983. He obtained a doctor’s degree in 1989 at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology(KAIST). He has been working at POSCO Technical Research Labs since 1989. He was a group leader of Automotive Steel Product Research Group in 2009. Currently he is a group leader of Surface Technology Research Group.
3．The Influence of Surface Chemistry and Morphology on the Reactive Wetting of Advanced High Strength Steels
Dr. Joe McDermid, McMaster University, Canada（加拿大McMaster大学）
One of the fundamental problems to be addressed in the continuous galvanizing of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) alloyed with Mn, Si and Al is the selective oxidation of these alloying elements in the annealing furnace prior to galvanizing and its subsequent impact on reactive wetting by the Zn(Al,Fe) bath. However, despite this problem, TRIP and DP alloys with significant Mn, Si and Al contents are galvanized and galvannealed both in the laboratory and on the industrial scale. Research at McMaster has indicated that the reactive wetting of AHSS surfaces by the continuous galvanizing bath is strongly affected by the alloy composition and consequent oxide chemistry, process atmosphere oxygen partial pressure, the microstructure of the oxides arising from these factors and how they interact with the liquid Zn bath.
Dr. McDermid received his B.Sc. (Hon) in Metallurgical Engineering from Queen's University at Kingston in 1985 and subsequently received his Ph.D, in Metallurgical and Materials Engineering from McGill University in 1992. He then worked at the Noranda Technology Centre in Pointe Claire, Canada in the areas of copper pyrometallurgy, aluminium products and continuous galvanizing, rising to the rank of Senior Scientist. Since 2003, he has been at McMaster University in Hamilton Canada in 2003 as the NSERC/Stelco Industrial Research Chair, which was renewed in 2008 as the NSERC\US Steel Canada\Xstrata Zinc Industrial Research Chair. His research is focused on gas-metal reactions and thermal cycles on the metallic coating and mechanical properties of AHSS.
4．Real life experiences with application and user problems for galvanized steel
Dr. Gary Dallin, Galvainfo Center, IZA （国际锌协会镀锌信息中心）
The GalvInfo Center is a resource for technical information on the use and performance of zinc containing coated steel sheet products. Inquiries about applications of coated sheet are reviewed. The trends of these inquiries relating to the needs for further development of properties are analyzed. Specific information that has helped users with material selection is discussed. The presentation includes a description and review of galvanized sheet production courses that have been organized and conducted by the GalvInfo Center.
Gary Dallin has 42 years of experience with galvanized and prepainted steel sheet products, acquired while working as a metallurgist for a major Canadian steel producer, which included serving as Senior Product Metallurgist-Coated, and as Manager of Customer Service Metallurgy, dealing with marketplace product issues in the appliance, construction, building products, and automotive industries. He has also been involved in many facets of galvanize technology, including quality assurance, product/process development, and marketing. He is a member of ASM International, and is immediate past chairman of ASTM Committee A05 on Metallic Coated Steel Products. Mr. Dallin is a registered Professional Engineer in the Province of Ontario and is President of his own consulting company, Steel Technology Services Inc. in Burlington, ON, Canada. He is also the Director of the GalvInfo Center, a program of the International Zinc Association.
5．Zn-Al-Mg coatings - the characteristics of ZAM and development in the future
Zn-Al-Mg合金镀层 - 未来ZAM的特点与发展
Dr. Takeshi Shimizu, Nisshin Steel （日本日新钢铁公司）
This year marks the tenth anniversary of commercial production of a hot-dip Zn-6%Al-3%Mg alloy coated steel sheet (ZAM) by Nisshin Steel. Over the years, the production volume of ZAM has steadily increased, and nowadays, our company produces more than 50,000 tons per month. In this presentation, we will talk about the background to the development of ZAM and its characteristics, focusing on its corrosion resistance. And we will explain our future approach to ZAM.
Dr. Takeshi Shimizu is currently working as a group leader in Surface Treatment Dept. of Steel & Technology Development Laboratories inin Nisshin Steel Co., Ltd. He graduated in the degree course of Industrial Chemistry at Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan) and joined Nisshin in 1990.
6．Galvanizing Reactions – From Basic Concepts to Practical Controls
镀锌反应 – 从基本概念到实际控制
Dr. Daniel Liu, Teck （加拿大Teck Cominco金属公司）
Many important aspects of the galvanizing process, such as bath management and submerged hardware, are affected by various chemical reactions. Adequate control of these reactions can lead to improvements in process efficiency and product quality. This presentation covers the basic principles of these reactions, with a focus on the practical means and tools for controlling the reactions.
Dr. Daniel Liu is a senior scientist at the Teck’s Product Technology Centre. He received B.Eng. and M.Sc. degrees from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China and Ph.D. degree from Clemson University, South Carolina, USA. He plays an important role in various R&D projects in continuous galvanizing, general galvanizing and zinc die-casting. He has authored and co-authored over forty papers in various journals and conferences.
7．Galvanealing – progress in product and process
镀锌合金化 – 产品和工艺的进展
Dr. Michel Dubois, CMI （法国CMI公司）
This presentation intend to give an overview of Galvanneal coating as a product, its production process and application. The typical microstructure will be addressed with the types and morphologies of the different Fe-Zn intermetallics either just after alloying or after Skinpass. The alloying mechanism is described in relation to the impact of some key process and substrate parameters on the Fe diffusion rate. The effect of the time-temperature cycle as well as the impact of the steel composition will be discussed. The process parameters and control mechanisms that are required to produce Galvanneal coating product will then be discussed. Finally, the quality aspects are addressed with the description of some specific defects (pimples, streaks, uneven grey) and recommendations for inspection.
Dr. M. Dubois was educated at Liège University (Belgium) where he was graduated M.SC.Engineer in Metallurgy in 1977. He has been working on the Hot Dip Galvanizing process for 30 years in Cockerill Sambre now Arcelor-Mittal. He joined the CMI Groupe in July 2008 where he is Senior Process Engineer. He has in charge all types of process and product expertise for the CMI customers. This includes for example Process and Metallurgical trainings, Process Expertises on and for new projects, technical audits of existing lines to improve quality and/or productivity, the R&D activities and finally the marketing aspects including active participation to technical conferences.
8．Corrosion testing and relevance to real world performance
Dr. X.G. Zhang, Teck Metals Ltd, Canada, on behalf of IZA （国际锌协会代表）
Corrosion testing is an important aspect of coating materials development, performance assessment, and quality control. How to interpret and correlate the results of corrosion testing to the behavior and performance in real application environments is often a challenging problem. This paper will discuss the issue of relevance of corrosion tests to real life performance and a practical way to measure the relevance. It will further address the need and methodology to develop new corrosion tests that may be useful in the development of new coatings and in the new applications of galvanized steel products.
Gregory Zhang is a R&D manager at Teck’s Product Technology Centre in Ontario responsible for a program to develop products and applications of zinc in energy and corrosion. He obtained his Bs from Beihang University in China in 1982 and Ph.D. from Free University of Brussels in 1987 and had post-doc experiences in MIT and Columbia University before joining Teck in 1990. His work has led to more than 50 technical publications including the book: Corrosion and Electrochemistry of Zinc, which was translated into Chinese in 2008.
9. New developments for high corrosion resistant coatings
Dr. Frank Goodwin, ILZRO/IZA（国际锌协会技术市场部总监）
Alloying of zinc coatings with magnesium and aluminium significantly improves coating corrosion resistance under atmospheric conditions. Zn-Al-Mg coatings with the thickness of 10 μm provided similar protection as Galfan at 20 μm in both confined and open configurations. In comparison to 10-μm HDG, the Zn-Al-Mg coating delayed red rust appearance in crevices by a factor of 2 and the maximum depth of corrosion in the steel substrate was 42 % lower. In comparison to HDG, red rust appeared 4 to 10 weeks later, the maximal depth of corrosion in steel was 66 % lower, and the red rusted area after the end of testing was 13 instead of 73 % of the exposed area. The mechanism of aluminium and magnesium on corrosion stability of alloyed zinc coatings will also be discussed based on experiments with model zinc alloys.
Dr. Frank Goodwin is the Executive Director of International Lead and Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO), Director of Technology and Market Development of International Zinc Association. He has been responsible for research and development activities since joined ILZRO in 1982. With profound knowledge and extensive experiences, he is widely recognized in the industry as an authority in galvanizing science, technology and application. Dr. Goodwin holds a Ph.D. from MIT and authored numerous technical publications. He has been a member of organizing committee for the international continuous galvanizing conference, Galvatech, and the plenary speaker in several conferences. He was responsible for and oversaw the development Galfan coating.
10. Present technology trends and line design in hot dip galvanizing
Dr. Michel Dubois, CMI（法国CMI公司）
Hot dip Galvanizing technology has improved significantly with years, essentially driven by improvement of quality, reduction of fabrication costs and new products. Typical updated CGL dedicated to the automotive industry and new layouts of dual product or dual combined process lines will be discussed. The main process included in a CGL are then reviewed in view of the latest developments as well as also present limitations. Cleaning, Furnace, snout, pot equipment, pot management, wiping, strip stability, Skin pass, passivation, news sensors and overall energy consumption. Finally, future trend will be discussed in terms of the driving forces and the expected practical challenges in relation with the technological developments
M. Dubois was educated at Liège University (Belgium) where he was graduated M.SC.Engineer in Metallurgy in 1977. He has been working on the Hot Dip Galvanizing process for 30 years in Cockerill Sambre now Arcelor-Mittal. He joined the CMI Groupe in July 2008 where he is Senior Process Engineer. He has in charge all types of process and product expertise for the CMI customers. This includes for example Process and Metallurgical trainings, Process Expertises on and for new projects, technical audits of existing lines to improve quality and/or productivity, the R&D activities and finally the marketing aspects including active participation to technical conferences.